What is Carnival Glass? Identification Guide

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If you’ve come across a piece of decorative pressed glass with a rich iridescent color, you were likely handling carnival glass. Carnival glass is collectible glassware from the early 20th century that was eventually given away at carnivals when it started to go out of fashion. Some families viewed the glass as a keepsake, and others tossed the pieces away without much thought. 

Today, carnival glass is an affordable collectible that can brighten up a curio cabinet. Most patterns on the market are relatively common and inexpensive, but there are some rare and highly prized pieces as well. This article will help you identify carnival glass with more confidence and accuracy.


History

Northwood Grape & Cable Carnival Glass Tankard and Tumbler Set
Northwood Grape & Cable Carnival Glass Tankard and Tumbler Set, $425

Most carnival glass was made in America between 1908 and 1918 by companies like Fenton Art Glass and Northwood Glass. Fenton initially called the glass Iridill well before companies gave it away at carnivals. As the accessible glassware became more popular, other companies like Dugan and Millersburg eventually followed suit, and production continued through the early 1930s.

Fenton, who was the pioneer of Iridill Glass, wanted to create an affordable rival to iridescent art glass from companies like Steuben. Some people referred to this new carnival glass as “poor man’s Tiffany” since it was mass-produced and not as prestigious. 

Glass manufacturers reproduced late carnival glass in the 1950s and 60s due to a resurgence of the style. This revival period can be confusing for collectors because glass companies made new pieces and reproduced old patterns from the early 1900s. The older carnival glass tends to be more valuable than the vintage pieces, but there is a market for all of it. 


How is Carnival Glass Made?

Antique Fenton Cobalt Blue Carnival Glass Bowl. Pattern is Peacock Tail
Antique Fenton Cobalt Blue Carnival Glass Bowl. Pattern is Peacock Tail, $54

To create the rich iridescent sheen, chemicals are added to pressed glass (either colored or clear) before it is fired. This iridescent sheen was inexpensive to produce and served as a knockoff for more expensive art glass like Steuben or Quezal. 

Carnival Glass Quick Facts

  • Common colors: Marigold, amber, amethyst, green, and blue
  • Rare colors: Peach, red, aqua, milk glass
  • Shapes: Vases, pitches, compotes, candy dishes, ashtrays, plates, bowls
  • Common Patterns: Peacock Tail, Grape and Cable, Iris & Herringbone, Good Luck
  • Rare Patterns: Black Amethyst, Strawberry Scroll, Farmyard
Vintage Jeanette Iris Herringbone Iridescent Tumblers and Pitcher Set
Vintage Jeanette Iris Herringbone Iridescent Tumblers and Pitcher Set, c. 1960, $130

What Makes Carnival Glass Valuable?

Northwood Carnival Glass Good Luck PCE Bowl
Northwood Carnival Glass Good Luck PCE Bowl, $222.50

Collectors can buy most pieces for $50 or less, but some special shapes can fetch a thousand dollars or more. So what makes a piece of carnival glass valuable? You’re looking for these things:

  • Rarity. How many of the item were originally produced? Is one shape more rare than another in the same pattern? Rarity can be based on supply but also relies on demand. 
  • Age. When was the piece produced? Anything produced before 1950 tends to be more valuable. 
  • Authenticity. Can you track the item back to Fenton or another company? A hallmark or certificate of authenticity helps resale value. 
  • Condition. An item needs to have an intact sheen and be free from chips or cracks to be considered valuable. 

How to Identify Carnival Glass

Crown Crystal Australian Carnival Glass Pin Ups Salad Bowl, Black Amethyst
Crown Crystal Australian Carnival Glass Pin Ups Salad Bowl, Black Amethyst, $435

1. Iridescent sheen. Before you look at patterns and shape, look at the sheen of the glass. Carnival glass must have a notable iridescent sheen regardless of the base color. Solid colored glass like jadeite do not apply.

2. Identifiable pattern. Most glass companies have common patterns listed in old catalogs that can be searched online. Don’t get discouraged, though. There are thousands of pattern/shape combos in circulation. 

3. Item shape. Also, take note of the structure of the item. Carnival glass has a lot of unique folds, waves, and dips in the glass that other glassware does not. These nuances can help you pinpoint a pattern and a manufacturer. 

Identification Tip: Northwood carnival glass is usually marked with an underlined capital N inside a circle. Most other carnival glass is unmarked, so collectors need to reference catalogs and use shapes and patterns for identification and dating. 

Pattern Catalogs on Archive.org

Before buying a book, check out these free resources you can borrow. 

BROCKWITZ Carnival Glass Blue NORTHERN LIGHTS Jardiniere
BROCKWITZ Carnival Glass Blue NORTHERN LIGHTS Jardiniere, $1,423.28

Carnival glass is not to be confused with opalescent glass, milk glass, or depression glass.

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